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Young businessman with neck pain at work

Why is “Post-Concussion Syndrome” Controversial?

We do not yet have a clear understanding of what happens in the brain immediately after a concussion and over the days and months that follow, especially for those patients whose symptoms persist. Post-concussion symptom rates vary greatly among research studies, likely because the populations studied are diverse and so are the diagnostic criteria and timing of assessments. The wide variation in symptom rates highlights the fact that there is a lot we still don’t know about concussions.

Close up of child with bandage over head wound

Top Causes of Concussion in Children and Adolescents

When we think of “youth” and “concussion,” the first thing that likely comes to mind is a teenager engaging in a high-risk activity such as football, soccer, or snowboarding. But not all youth brain injury results from these risky activities. Of the millions of concussions reported by emergency rooms every year, figures put concussions related to sports and recreation at just 30% – so 70% of concussions result from other causes.

Chiropractor checking neck injury of patient

Is Concussion a Diagnosis?

Clinicians like me say that concussion requires a clinical diagnosis based on the history of what happened to produce the symptoms. However, because these same symptoms appear in other conditions, and we don’t have reliable biomarkers, diagnosing a concussion can sometimes be a challenge. The lingering effects of a mild brain injury can also continue as a chronic condition, often referred to as post-concussion syndrome or persistent post-concussion symptoms, that still require treatment.

Excercise-Sleep-Time To Heal from TBI

3 Things to Do to Allow Your Brain to Recover More Quickly After Brain Injury

After a concussion, people need good sleep patterns, and they also need to resume activity and exercise to aid recovery. Activities with concussion risk should be avoided, however.

older woman with doctor

Traumatic Brain Injury and the Elderly

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among seniors. The cause is often a fall or a motor vehicle accident, but head trauma due to elder abuse or neglect must always be considered, too. Older adults usually have other health conditions and sometimes dementia, so a diagnosis of a TBI can be challenging. The brains of elderly people are also more vulnerable to injury, and many older adults are on anticoagulant medications that put them at risk of brain bleeds. If elder abuse or neglect is suspected, mandatory reporting laws must be followed by certain professionals and even ordinary citizens in some states of the United States.

Woman looking pensively from apartment

Mood Disorders Such as Depression Can Complicate a Brain Injury

A traumatic brain injury can be associated with depression or another mood disorder, possibly because of the disruption of brain chemicals.

Patient-Centered Approach to Concussion Care: CME & Webinar

A Patient-Centered Approach to Concussion Care: CME & Webinar

Elizabeth Sandel, MD, a physiatrist and brain injury medicine physician, and Conor Gormally, co-founder of Concussion Alliance — a young man who has experienced several concussions — present a patient-centered care approach for emergency medicine and primary care physicians.

pituitary / brain

How Does Brain Trauma Affect Brain Hormones?

Evaluating and treating people with hormonal deficiencies after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be very challenging. Learn about the screening and treatment of pituitary deficiencies that may occur in both the acute and chronic stages after a concussion or other TBI.

Mother and smiling daughter in doctor's office

Will My Child Experience Long-Term Consequences from a Concussion or other Brain Injury?

Although most children recover fully after a single concussion, others have long-term effects. Of course, prevention is the best strategy, but if a concussion occurs, parents must understand a brain injury has occurred.

X-ray of child and headache

How Long Will It Take for My Child to Recover from a Concussion?

Children can experience a range of symptoms after concussion. They require individualized treatments and strategies for returning to activities and to school. A physician with training and experience in treating concussions must provide early interventions and follow-up, regardless of how long recovery takes.

Pocket Guide Featured Image

Self-Reported Concussion Symptoms are Key to Evaluation & Diagnosis

To properly diagnose a concussion and devise a treatment plan requires a thorough physician evaluation, a symptom checklist or an interview, or both, followed by a comprehensive cognitive and physical examination. Download a pocket guide that helps patients prepare for being evaluated.

Child sitting in the corner of a room

Abuse: A Leading Cause of Brain Injury in Children

Child abuse is a top cause of brain injury-related emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among children of all ages. Diagnosis can be challenging in cases of pediatric abusive head trauma. Prevention strategies at the individual and community level can be effective and there are many available resources.

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