Archive

Conditions

Traumatic brain injuries may lead to a number of conditions, such as persistent post-concussion syndrome, disorders of consciousness, or neurodegenerative diseases.

pituitary / brain

How Does Brain Trauma Affect Brain Hormones?

Evaluating and treating people with hormonal deficiencies after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be very challenging. Learn about the screening and treatment of pituitary deficiencies that may occur in both the acute and chronic stages after a concussion or other TBI.

Pills and capsules

Opioids Cause Problems After a Brain Injury

Stories of opioid-related disability and death are in the news frequently because of a surge in the use of these substances over the past few decades. For people with a history of brain injury, including concussions, the risks of using opioids are higher than for those without this medical history. Learn about the benefits and dangers of these substances, some of which are not only legal but widely prescribed for acute and chronic pain.

disorders of consciousness

Coma and Other Disorders of Consciousness

What happens to the brain after a severe brain injury that renders a person unconscious or “comatose”? Learn the meaning of other terms that describe patients who have disorders of consciousness: the minimally conscious state, cognitive-motor dissociation, covert consciousness, and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state). Researchers are studying advanced technologies evaluating patients with disorders of consciousness, and there are new U.S. and European guidelines that are helping to standardize care and advance the field of brain injury.

CTE: Areas of Tau Protein Development

Repetitive Brain Trauma and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)

There’s a link between chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and repetitive brain injuries that occur in boxing and American football. This is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can lead to severely-disabling neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Learn about the science, diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES), and possible treatment approaches.

woman with PCS symptoms listed

What is Post-Concussion Syndrome?

I recently talked with journalist Nathaniel Parish Flannery who writes about cycling. He was writing an article about pro cyclist Ian Boswell. Boswell had a crash in 2019 that resulted in long-term concussion symptoms. Flannery found our conversation and my book, Shaken Brain, very helpful, and he tells Boswell’s story in…

The prevalence of brain injuries in sports and the military: The Illuminare Podcst

The Prevalence of Brain Injuries in Sports and the Military

In the second part of this series, Dr. Sandel continues with further discussion of concussion management. She then describes blast injuries that occur in the military. Who provides treatment for concussions and what kind of care is best?, What are the risks of a long-term problem after a concussion or…

The "Invisible Injury": Concussions and Other TBIs. The Illuminare Podcast.

The “Invisible Injury”: Concussions and other TBI’s

In the first part of this series, Dr. Sandel discusses mild brain injuries, especially sports-related concussions. What happens to the brain during a concussion and what are the symtpoms? What is second impact syndrome? And are children more or less vulnerable than adults?

Mel Glenn, MD

The Post-Concussion Syndrome

Physiatrist Dr. Mel Glenn discusses the evaluation of the many symptoms that are part of a chronic condition called post-concussion syndrome or disorder that occurs in some patients after a concussion. He offers advice on the treatment of headaches, sleep disturbances, and other conditions.

Doctor looking at x-ray photo with patient in background

Treatment and Prognosis for Post-Concussion Syndrome

Treatments for post-concussion symptoms include targeted medication trials and various rehabilitation therapies such as physical, occupational, and speech therapy. Sometimes complementary therapies can be helpful, too.

Chiropractor checking neck injury of patient

How Is Post-Concussion Syndrome Diagnosed?

Diagnosis of the causes of post-concussion syndrome and targeted treatment requires a thorough physician evaluation, either using a symptom checklist or an open-ended physician interview called a “history” and “review of symptoms.”

Young businessman with neck pain at work

Why Post-Concussion Syndrome Is Controversial

Because post-concussive symptoms overlap with other conditions, a misdiagnosis is possible. Sometimes people have more than one diagnosis, too. The term post-concussion syndrome is controversial, too, because it is really not a syndrome. A syndrome has a consistent cluster of symptoms or signs that make it a syndrome. This is not true for post-concussion syndrome.

Keep up to date

Get updates on the latest in concussion, brain health, and science-related tools from Dr. Elizabeth Sandel, M.D.

By clicking SIGN UP, you agree to receive emails from Dr. Sandel and agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.